Early SF film and politics

Two classics of silent era SF, Fritz Lang and Thea von Harbou’s Metropolis, and Alexei Tolstoy’s Aelita (1922) adapted for the screen by Yakov Protazanov in 1924, represent the impact of political movements on scientific development and visions of human futures. Metropolis has been endlessly interpreted and reinterpreted as representing, at various times, Bolshevik or